The real possibility of foreseeable future spacecraft, built by private companies, largely due to the new strategy for the exploration of outer space, adopted by the American Agency NASA in 2005 and received additional development in February 2010 (the new agenda of President Barack Obama). In accordance with the new strategy is considered to attract private companies to implement various elements of outer space activities, such as delivering astronauts to the space station ISS, the provision of cargo into orbit and from orbit, etc. In the framework of the program of a commercial space transportation system (Commercial Orbital Transportation Services – COTS), has declared an open competition, the winners of which received from the Agency $ 500 million. Information about the competition, its main participants and winners are listed in a separate section – Commercial Orbital Transportation Services.
In addition, in February 2007, two private companies, have not got to number of finalists – Transformational Space LLC (t/Space) and PlanetSpace (Canadian Arrow). working to develop spacecraft to deliver cargo and crews to the International space station, has signed an agreement with NASA to carry out works in aromaplastie. The agreement does not provide for financing of works, but it gives both companies the right to access the expertise of the aerospace Department, and also sets intermediate deadlines, which allows them to clearly track the intermediate results achieved.
Commercial Crew Development CCDev
After identifying companies that will deliver to ISS the various goods in 2009 was declared a competition to develop a commercial means of delivery of crew ( Commercial Crew Development CCDev ). On 2 February 2010 at the National press club in Washington scientific adviser to the President of the United States John Holdren (John P. Holdren) and the administrator of NASA Charles Bolden (Charles F. Bolden) presented five finalists, who received $ 50 million dollars :
The Sierra Nevada Corporation . the headquarters is located in sparks, Nevada, which in 2008 acquired the private company SpaceDev. received 20 million dollars . The Corporation has proposed the concept of cosmoplane with a monocoque body Dream Chaser . which was developed by SpaceDev. To start the unit you plan to use PH Atlas V.
The Boeing Corporation. the headquarters is located in Chicago, Illinois, received a contract worth 18 million dollars . which will be used to develop the concept of a seven-seat manned spacecraft CST-100 . Together with Boeing in a row this will execute firm Bigelow Aerospace, involved in the development of residential orbital complexes.
United launch Alliance United Launch Alliance (ULA, headquartered in the city of centennial, Colorado) received 6.7 million dollars to create a system to identify failures (Emergency Detection System), which will help make the Atlas V and Delta IV capable of carrying manned spacecraft.
Private company Blue Origin . the headquarters is located in Kent, Washington, has received from NASA 3.7 million dollars for the development of the technology of emergency rescue system (Launch Escape System LES) and a sealed compartment of a manned spacecraft made of composite materials (composite pressure vessel cabin).
Corporation Paragon Space Developmetn . the headquarters is located in Tucson, Arizona, received from NASA 1.4 million dollars to develop life support systems for manned spacecraft.
Commercial Crew Development CCDev-2
October 1, 2010 was declared the second round of the competition, Commercial Crew Development CCDev-2 . the results of which were to allocate 200 million dollars . Proposals were accepted until November 13, 2010, and the announcement of results was scheduled for March 2011. Its in the area of offering presented six different companies:
Blue Origin project manned transport system (Crew Transportation System ). The Boeing Company with the ship CST-100. Sierra Nevada Corp. with cosmoplane Dream Chaser . Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) with the development of the CAC for the ship Dragon. Orbital Sciences Corp. with cosmoplane Prometheus . United Launch Alliance (ULA) plan for the continuation of works on certification of missiles Atlas V and Delta IV to launch astronauts.
February 22, 2011, NASA invited to join the contest two more companies:
Alliant Techsystems (ATK) rocket design-nositelya Liberty . Excalibur Almaz Inc vehicle Excalibur Almaz.
April 18, 2011 identified four firm-the winner received in the amount of 200 million dollars :
Blue Origin received $ 22 million dollars for development of a manned transport system (Crew Transportation System ).
Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) has received 75 million dollars on completion of the Dragon capsule for manned option.
Sierra Nevada Corp. received $ 80 million to develop the Dream Chaser cosmoplane .
The Boeing Company received $ 92.3 million to develop the ship CST-100.
Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCAP)
September 16, 2014 NASA announced the results of the competition, Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCAP). Funding for production and carrying out manned flights (two test and two production) has got 2 companies:
SpaceX (SpaceX) has received $ 2.6 billion ($2.6 billion) to develop the Dragon v2 spacecraft.0.
The Boeing Company has received 4.2 billion dollars ($4.2 billion) on developing the ship CST-100.
A third company, Sierra Nevada is developing the Dream Chaser vehicle, filed a protest to the State General accounting office of USA (General Accountability Office – GAO), contesting the decision of NASA. However, in January 2015 the GAO rejected the protest, recognizing the selection of Boeing and SpaceX justified that opened for NASA ability to perform contracts under CCtCAP.